Case study - Threats & Mitigation
Case study: Deya
To illustrate this, let’s use the fictional but fairly common experience of Deya. Deya is a feminist activist who uses her Twitter account to call out those who promote rape culture. As a result of this, Deya has been been harassed and threatened online.
The threat she is most concerned with are the people that promise to find out where she lives and share that information on the internet to invite others to cause her physical harm. In this case, the impact is clear – physical harm towards Deya. There are other threats such as harassing her employers to fire her from her job, and to harass her known friends online.
To do risk assessment, Deya will have to go through these threats and analyse them to assess their probability and impact – in order to plan how she can mitigate her risks.
Threat 1: To find out where she lives and share that information online
Most of the threats come from accounts online – most of whom she does not know, and cannot verify if they are actual people or fake accounts. She recognises a handful of those participating in these online threats as known actors who often take part in attacking women online. Based on her knowledge of their previous attacks, she knows that personal details have sometimes been published online, and this has created a real sense of fear for her personal safety.
Is there are a way for her to prevent this from happening? How likely is it that her harassers and attackers will find out where she lives? She needs to figure out how likely it is that her address is either already available on the internet or can be made available by one of her attackers.
In order to assess this, Deya can begin by doing a search for herself and the information that is available about her online – to see if there are physical spaces that are associated with her, and if these will point to her actual physical location. If she discovers that her home address is available on the internet, is there something she can do about it? If she discovers that her address is currently searchable on the internet, then what can she do to avoid having it publicly available?
Deya can also assess how vulnerable and/or secure her home is. Does she live in a building with guards and protocols for non-tenant access? Does she live in an apartment that she has to secure on her own? Does she live alone? What are the vulnerabilities in her home?
Deya will also have to assess her own existing capacities and resources to protect herself. If her home address is made public on the internet, can she move locations? Who is available to offer her support during this time? Are there authorities that she can call on for protection?
Threat 2: To harass her employers to get Deya fired from her job
Deya works for a human rights NGO so there is no threat of her being fired from her job. But the organisation’s office address is publicly known in her city and available on their website.
For Deya, the threat of being fired from her job is low. But the publicly available information about her NGO may be a vulnerability to Deya and the staff’s physical security.
In this scenario, the organisation must do their own risk assessment as a result of the threats being faced by one of their staff.
What to do with risks? General mitigation tactics
Beyond identifying and analysing threats, probability, impact and capacities, risk assessment also deals with making a mitigation plan for all the risks identified and analysed.
There are five general ways to mitigate risks:
Accept the risk and make contingency plans. Some risks are unavoidable. Or some goals are worth the risk. But it does not mean that they can be dismissed. Contingency planning is about imagining the risk and the worst case impact happening, and taking steps to deal with it.
Avoid the risk. This means decreasing the probability of a threat happening. This may mean implementing security policies to keep the group more secure. This could also mean behavioural changes that will increase the chances of avoiding a specific risk.
Control the risk. Sometimes, a group may decide on focusing on the impact of a threat and not on the threat itself. Controlling the risk means decreasing the severity of the impact.
Transfer the risk. Get an outside resource to assume the risk and its impact.
Monitor the risk for changes in probability and impact. This is usually the mitigation tactic for low-level risks.
Case study: Deya
To use Deya’s example again, she has options about what to do with the risks she is facing based on her analysis of each threat, the probability of each threat happening, the impact of each threat, and her own existing capacities to handle the threat and/or the impacts of the threat.
In a scenario where Deya’s home address is already searchable on the internet, the risk will have to be accepted and Deya can focus on making contingency plans. These plans can range from improving the security of her home to moving homes. What is possible will depend on Deya’s existing realities and contexts.
The other option for Deya in this scenario is to ask where her address is publicly available to take down that content. But this is not a foolproof tactic. It will help her avoid the risk if none of her harassers have seen it. But if some have seen it and taken a screenshot of that information, then there is very little that Deya can do to stop the information from spreading.
In a scenario where Deya’s address is not publicly known and available on the internet, there is more breathing room to avoid the risk. What can Deya then do to prevent her home address from being discovered by her harassers? Here, she can take down posts that are geo-tagged that are close to her home, and stop posting live geo-tagged posts.
In both scenarios (about her address being publicly available or not), Deya can also take steps to control the risk by focusing on protecting her home.
Good risk mitigation strategies will involve thinking about preventive strategies and incident response – assessing what can be done in order to avoid a threat, and what can be done when the threat is realised.
• What capacities do you already have in order to prevent this threat from being realised?
• What actions will you take in order to prevent this threat from being realised? How will you change the processes in the network in order to prevent this threat from happening?
• Are there policies and procedures you need to create in order to do this?
• What skills will you need in order to prevent this threat?
• What will you do when this threat is realised? What are the steps that you will take when this threat happens?
• How will you minimise the severity of the impact of this threat?
• What skills do you need in order to take the steps necessary to respond to this threat?
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